An ad or advertisement is an audio, visual or textual form of information (creative), displayed within the app or on the website, the purpose of which is promoting a product, service, or company’s brand. The purpose of ads is to reach a potentially interested audience, willing to buy the product.

  • Asset: the art work or file associated with a creative.
  • Companion ads: ads served along with linear or non-linear ads in the form of text, static image display ads, rich media, or skins that wrap around the video experience.
  • Creative: an advertising unit created by an ad designer, in accordance with publisher specifications and guidelines, for the purpose of communicating a marketing message to that publisher’s audience. One creative may consist of multiple files in various formats, such as standard images, animation, video, execution files (.html, .js, etc.) and other files that work together for an interactive experience.
  • In-stream ads: a generic term for video ad formats.
  • IPTV ads: ads whose media files are stored in the IPTV (Internet Protocol television) closed network, meaning you do not attach the media file to the IPTV ad through Pulse, instead you make a reference to that file using the ID of the video creative.
  • Linear Ads: ads that interrupt video content before (pre-roll), during (mid-roll), or after (post-roll) the streaming content. They can be accompanied by a companion ad, or they can include an interactive component.
  • Mid-roll: an ad that appears during the video content.
  • Non-linear ads: ads typically served as images that overlay video content. The ad runs concurrently with the video content so the user sees the ad while also viewing the content without interruption. They can also be served with companion ads.
  • Passback: a backup ad source which is called upon in sequence until an ad is delivered or there are no more sources in the list. The player does not make any new requests to Pulse to get the passback ads, it is included in the original ad request.
  • Post-roll: an ad that appears after the video content finished playing.
  • Pre-roll: an ad that appears before the video content starts playing.
  • RTB ad: an RTB (Real-Time Bidding) ad in Pulse are just a way to connect a placeholder ad with a marketplace from your list of active private marketplaces. There is no way to know in advance which bid will be the auction winner.
  • Third party ads: ads that come from an external provider.

Ad break

A break before, during, or after video content where one or more ads are inserted. For example, a pre-roll, mid-roll, or post-roll ad break.

Ad request

The event counted whenever your site requests ads to be displayed, even if no ads were returned.

Ad position

The position in the ad break that ads from a goal can occupy. This is configured when creating a goal, however the maximum number of ad positions in a linear ad break is configured in your insertion policies. The applicable insertion policy dictates whether a goal with specific settings is eligible for selection. For example, if the applicable insertion policy is set to allow only two ads per mid-roll break, then a goal with ad position set to 'Position 3' or higher is never eligible for selection.

Ad weight

Ad weight is used to choose how often to pick a specific ad after the goal has already been picked. Weight is applied within individual ad formats on a single goal. Ads have two kinds of weights: explicit weights and proportional split (no weight set). If there are multiple ads of the same ad format in one goal, they take an even share of the impressions by default, meaning they split the weight proportionally and have an equal chance of getting selected. If you assign an explicit weight to one of the ads because it needs to run more frequently, then that ad has a better chance of getting selected.

All ads with proportional split share the remaining weight (100% - explicit weights). This means that explicitly setting the weight of an ad affects the weight of other ads that have proportional split.

Example: You have 2 pre-roll ads with no weight set. You add a third pre-roll ad with weight 50%. The two previously added ads will now have 25% weight each (they automatically split the remaining 50%).

Break exclusivity

Setting a normal goal’s ad position to 'break exclusive' means that you want an ad from the goal to be the only ad within the ad break, when that goal is selected by the distribution engine. As a consequence, break exclusive goals and goals of any other ad position are mutually exclusive in a single ad break, which means an ad break is either filled with just one ad from a break exclusive goal, or one or more ads from goals of any other position, depending on your settings. This is in contrast to the Campaign Exclusivity, which applies to the whole ad session and not the individual ad breaks within the session.

Break exclusivity does not give the goal higher priority in any way. This allows you to sell to an advertiser the opportunity of having the break completely or partially to oneself, and is something that you can use to increase CPM.

For example, you have set your insertion policy to 2 pre-rolls and 2 mid-rolls and you book sponsors with the default ad position. There are break exclusive goals and goals of any other ad position available in your account and they need impressions. One possible scenario is that the break exclusive goal is selected first for the pre-roll ad break, other position goal is selected first for the mid-roll ad break. This means that for the pre-roll break all other goals are automatically discarded by the distribution engine after the first ad was selected, but for the mid-roll break the distribution engine searches for ads from other position goals to fill the second position.
  • The pre-roll break is filled with only one ad from a break exclusive goal. A sponsor ad is shown after the pre-roll break.
  • The mid-roll break is filled with two ads from two different goals that are not break exclusive. A sponsor ad is shown after the mid-roll ad break.
  • This does not affect sponsor ads as they run within their own sponsor break.
  • Break exclusive goals may cause wasted inventory.

Clash protection

Clash protection refers to the ability to prevent advertisers (direct and programmatic) or brands from clashing with each other during an ad break. When clash protection is enabled for a client, ads from that client are not shown together with ads from other clients in the same client category, which means if one client's campaign gets picked, the other client's campaign is discarded for further ad selection for all or some positions in an ad break or the complete session, depending on the setting. For more information, see Client Categories.


Video content running in the player (not the ad).


For internet purposes, cookies are small text files downloaded to a user's computer that can be used to store user information and preferences. Many sites use cookies to customise and improve functionality on repeat visits to a site.

Destination URL

The URL to which ads link. This is the page users see when they click-through to an advertiser's site from an ad.

Device container

A device container is a set of devices which are grouped based on common characteristics, such as operating system (OS) and platform, for the purpose of easier targeting and reporting. You can target your ads to one or more device containers, for example Android phones. Your account's device containers are configured by Professional Services. For more information on your current device container configuration, contact your Account Manager.

Digital Video Standards:

  • VAST: Video Ad Serving Template, the industry standard for communicating video ads from ad server to ad server and from ad server to video player. VAST is an XML based format that describes one or more ads, their media files, links to track on certain events, which page to open when someone clicks on the ad, and more.
  • VMAP: Video Multiple Ad Playlist, an XML based format that describes ad inventory insertion policy, meaning it describes to the video player when ad breaks should start, the types of ads to display, and whether or not to display multiple ads in the break. You could see VMAP as a wrapper of multiple VAST 3.0 tickets, supplying the video player with all metadata about the ad breaks to play the ads at the right time and in the right context.
  • VPAID: Video Player Ad Interface Definition, industry standard for interactive in-stream video ads. VPAID defines a uniform run-time environment so that a compliant player can accept any compliant advertisement from any other party.

Event cap

The maximum amount of events, % ad completions or click throughs, that can be delivered for a % ad completion or click through goal, respectively. You can set daily and hourly event caps. For more information, see Delivery Goal Types.


A forecast is a prediction of future conditions based on past and present data. Pulse continually collects data about all ad requests and responses, the 'past' data, which is used for the forecasting functionality in the system. The 'present' data used in forecasting is the current state of all campaigns, goals, ads, and other settings on your account. In this context, Pulse forecasts future ad inventory based on historical user traffic, and current campaign and account settings.

Frequency cap

The limit for the number of times a particular user sees a specific ad during a certain time period.


A feature intended to give you more manual control over the delivery pace which is otherwise completely controlled by Pulse's internal delivery algorithm (which tries to deliver all campaigns evenly over time by forecasting future available inventory).

Frontload can be set on global, campaign, and goal level and, if not edited, it is hierarchically inherited from global, to campaign, and then to goal level. The default value is 30%, on a scale from 0 - 100%, where 0% means 'evenly over campaign period' and 100% means 'as fast as possible'. Frontload is not applicable to share of voice goals, goals with unlimited impressions, goals without end dates, or sponsor goals (and therefore is not visible as an option for these goal types).

By using frontload, you can instruct Pulse that a portion of a goal should be treated differently – served as soon as possible if there is spare room in current inventory that would otherwise be unused and wasted. The frontload portion of the goal has a higher priority than impression goals without an end date, which means it is allowed to use any impression opportunity that no other impression goal with an end date needs. For example, if a goal is booked to 100 000 impressions and the frontload is set to 30%, it means the goal should deliver 30,000 impressions "ahead of schedule". After 30,000 impressions are delivered, the goal slows down and starts to deliver as evenly as possible.

Impression cap

The maximum amount of impressions that can be delivered for a goal. You can set total, daily, and hourly impression caps based on goal type. For more information, see Delivery Goal Types.

Insertion point

The point before, during, or after video content where the ad is inserted.

Insertion policy

An insertion policy defines the foundation for your ad serving settings, enabling you to specify:
  • tag and/or category targeting (only for the new Insertion Policy feature)
  • the allowed ad formats
  • the number of linear ads in breaks (pre-, mid-, post-, and seek-rolls)
  • the duration of the linear ad break (Time Based Breaks)
  • the minimum time between linear ads (Time based frequency cap)
  • the frequency and behaviour of non-linear ads in breaks (overlays)
  • the skip ad button behaviour

Interactive metrics

Quantitative measurement of individual interaction events, for example:
  • Accept Invitation: number of times the user activated a control that launched an additional, often more engaging, creative portion of the ad.
  • Close: number of times the user removed the ad from the player in a way that it can not be re-displayed.
  • Collapse: number of times a user collapsed the ad either to its original size or to a different size. For overlays, this tracks the number of times the user minimizes the ad without fully removing it from the player.
  • Expand: number of times a user expanded the ad within the video player.
  • Fullscreen: number of times the ad played in full screen mode.
  • Mute: number of times the user clicked or otherwise activated the mute control during the ad.
  • Pause: number of times the user pressed pause or otherwise paused an ad.
  • Resume: number of times the user clicked or otherwise activated the resume control to re-start the ad.
  • Rewind: number of times the user clicked or otherwise activated the rewind control in order to move backwards along the ad's timeline.
  • Unmute: number of times the user clicked or otherwise activated the un-mute control during the ad.


A quantitative measurement of data, for example:
  • 25% Ad completion: first quartile, number of times the ad played to 25% of its length.
  • 50% Ad completion: midpoint, number of times the ad played to 50% of its length.
  • 75% Ad completion: third quartile, number of times the ad played to 75% of its length.
  • 100% Ad completion: number of times the ad played to its completion.
  • Ad started: number of times the ad started playing.
  • Click-throughs: the total amount of clicks (to the destination URL) for a campaign during a specific time period.
  • Completion rate: percentage of times the ad played to the end.
  • Content start: also known as stream, refers to the start of the video content playback.
  • CTR: Click-Through Rate. The number of clicks on an ad, divided by the number of impressions during a specific time period and expressed as a percentage.
  • eCPM: effective Cost Per Thousand or effective Cost Per Mille. A performance metric showing revenue generated from a thousand impressions of a particular advertisement. eCPM is calculated by dividing total earnings by total number of impressions in thousands.
  • Fill rate: the ratio of ad requests that are successfully filled (used inventory) in relation to the total number of ad requests made (total inventory), expressed as a percentage. It shows how much of your ad space has been rented out, and how much of it is standing empty. The higher the fill rate, the better. A high fill rate means you are satisfying advertiser's demand for ad space and that you are making money.
  • Impression: the amount of successfully shown ads. Success is reported as soon as the first frame of the ad is shown in the player.
  • Interactions: an indication that the user interacted with the ad in some way during its display time, for example closed it, or clicked through to the destination page. Can only be triggered once per impression, but the individual events are still accounted for.
  • Interaction rate: the number of user interactions with the ad, divided by the number of impressions during a specific time period and expressed as a percentage.
  • Inventory: refers to the amount of opportunities to show an ad, derived from the amount of ad space a publisher has available to sell to an advertiser multiplied with the amount of ad views on the publisher’s site, or site traffic, often calculated by the month. This means that each time an ad request is made to Pulse, we track this as one possible inventory. This happens even if there is no ad returned from Pulse.
  • Revenue: the amount of earnings for a specific time period.
  • Time spent: total display time of the ads in seconds or other appropriate time based unit.
  • Unique impression: also called unique views, refers to the amount of successfully shown ads to unique viewers, meaning that a viewer who has seen the ad more than once is only counted one time.
  • Unique inventory: the amount of opportunities to show an ad to unique viewers. A unique viewer is defined as a viewer requesting ads with a pid (Persistent ID that identifies the end user and persists across sessions) that has not been previously registered.
  • View rate: A complex calculation based on quartile view-through rates in comparison to the amount of impressions. This calculation is explained in the following article: How Is View-Through Rate Calculated in Custom Reporting?


  • CPC: Cost Per Click. The amount you earn each time a user clicks on your ad. The CPC for any ad is determined by the advertiser.
  • CPM: Cost Per Thousand or Cost Per Mille. The price of 1000 advertisement impressions on one web page. If a website publisher charges $2 CPM, that means an advertiser must pay $2 for every 1000 impressions of its ad.


Also referred to as prio, defines the importance of the campaigns/goals picked for delivery. Priority can be set on global, campaign, and goal level and, if not edited, it is hierarchically inherited from global, to campaign, and then to goal level. Default value is 5, on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is the most important.


An automated process for advertisers to buy media, and for media owners to sell ad inventory (including display, mobile and video). It replaces the traditional process which involves requests for proposals, human negotiations and manual insertion orders.
  • Ad exchanges: online, often highly automated, auction-based marketplaces that facilitate the buying and selling of inventory across multiple parties ranging from advertisers, direct publishers, ad networks and Demand Side Platforms (DSPs).
  • Automated Guaranteed: also known as Programmatic guaranteed, Programmatic premium, Programmatic direct and Programmatic reserved, refers to an ad buy done directly between a publisher (seller) and advertiser (buyer) through automated ad-buying systems. The inventory and pricing are guaranteed, and the campaign is inserted alongside other direct deals in the ad server .
  • Buyer: the organization that places orders and usually represents an agency acting on behalf of the advertiser, or the advertiser that places orders directly. If the buyer represents advertisers, the buyer must obtain formal consent for acting on behalf of the advertiser and provide proof of that consent to the publisher.
  • Deal: refers to the terms of agreement between the publisher and one or more buyers. A marketplace can contain one or more deals.
  • Deal ID: a unique string of characters that are used as an identifier for sellers (publishers) and buyers (seats), representing a pre-arranged agreement between a publisher and a seat to purchase impressions under certain terms. The buyer and seller decide what that unique string of characters is defining. Depending on the platform you are using, this could include things like priority, transparency, floor pricing, or data.
  • DMP: Data Management Platform, refers to a platform that allows advertisers, agencies, publishers, and others to control their own first-party audience and campaign data, compare it to third-party audience data, and gives the ability to make smarter media buying and campaign planning decisions. Advertisers and agencies generally use DMPs in order to buy more effectively, while publishers typically use DMPs in order to segment their audiences and sell more effectively.
  • DSP: Demand Side Platform, a technology platform with a bidding algorithm. Using a DSP, buyers (advertisers, trading desks, agencies) are able to centralise their media buys with the programmatic purchase of digital inventory using a unified platform across various SSPs, ad exchanges, and ad networks. A DSP is designed to bid the optimal CPM for a particular impression in real time, incorporating the calculated value of the inventory against the campaign goal(s). A DSP works in the interest of a buyer.
  • Fixed price: any arrangement where the buyer and seller agree on a flat price that the buyer pays, rather than the highest bidder in an auction environment.
  • Price floor: a rate set by the publishers, below which they are not willing to sell the inventory.
  • Private Marketplace (PMP): refers to an invitation-only auction environment. It enables publishers to monetize their inventory more efficiently and place rules around who can purchase impressions. Only a number of buyers are selected and they compete against each other to win the auction. Inventory is bought and sold at an impression level.
  • RTB: Real-Time Bidding, refers to a way of transacting media that allows an individual ad impression to be put up for bid in real-time. This is done through a programmatic on-the-spot auction, which is similar to how financial markets operate. RTB allows for Addressable Advertising; the ability to serve ads to consumers directly based on their demographic, psychographic, or behavioural attributes.
  • Seat: or buyer, is the buying entity behind a DSP, typically an agency or trading desk, that buys advertisement for several advertisers. A DSP has a number of buyers behind it.
  • SSP: Sell-Side Platform or Supply-Side Platform, refers to a technology platform that makes it possible to sell automated online media to different parties. Using an automated yield optimiser, the algorithms in an SSP ensure that the publisher receives the highest turnover per impression. An SSP is connected to multiple demand sources which include DSPs, ad exchanges, and advertising networks. An SSP always works in the interest of a publisher.


Entities that produce some sort of text, images, audio, or video edited by professionals (for example, on a website or mobile app), this way providing the ad inventory where advertisers can display their ads.

Pulse Audience Management (PAM)

A functionality which allows Pulse users to target 3rd party data directly through Pulse when a data integration is added to the account.
  • Audience data provider: a provider of demographic data.
  • Audience group: a grouping of related segments, for example age, gender, or interests.
  • Audience segment: a specific segment of an audience, for example 10-27 years old, female, music lover, and so on.

Share of Voice (SoV)

An ad revenue model that focuses on weight or percentage among other advertisers; used to represent the relative portion of ad inventory available to a single advertiser within a defined market over a specified time period. For example, if there are four advertisers on a website, each advertiser gets 25 percent of the advertising weight. SoV can be set at different percentages, for example one campaign getting 10%, one 20%, one 25%, and one 45%.

Skip button

Button displayed in the video player either:
  • immedietaly when the ad starts playing, to allow the viewer to skip the entire ad, or
  • after a certain percentage of the ad has played, to allow the viewer to skip the rest of the ad.

The skip button behaviour is configured in your insertion policies. Campaigns, goals, and ads inherit the applicable insertion policy setting. You can overrride skip button settings on campaign, goal, or ad level when an advertiser wants a different skip button behaviour, or no skip button.


A way to deliver the ad impression to the relevant audience based on certain custom criteria. For more information on the different targeting rules you can set up in Pulse, see Targeting Rules.

  • DMA region: Designated Market Area region, used by Nielsen Media Research to define a group of counties that form an exclusive geographic area in which the home market television stations hold a dominance of total hours viewed. There are 210 DMA regions, covering the entire continental United States, Hawaii, and parts of Alaska.
  • Metro area: the metropolitan area where your target viewers are located, comprised of the densely populated urban core and its less populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. Metro area targeting provides you with more precise targeting in case your business does not serve all regions or cities, or your advertising efforts focus on certain areas within a country.

Time based breaks

A time based break refers to a linear ad break (pre-, mid-, post-, or seek-roll ad break) which has constraints for both the number of ads to show and total length of the ad break. The ad break ends when it reaches the specified duration, or when all its slots are filled, whichever happens first. Limiting ad break duration helps to increase viewer retention, and in turn increase your inventory because your viewers are more likely to return to your site and start more videos.

For more information, see Time Based Breaks.

Time based frequency cap

The minimum number of minutes that have to pass before any linear ad can be shown to a viewer again. The time based frequency cap is configured in your insertion policies, however it also affects sponsor goals.

Tracking pixel

A 1×1 pixel-sized transparent image (normally a GIF file) inserted into an ad that provides information about an ad’s placement. In many cases, a tracking pixel is used to notify an ad tracking system that either an ad has been served (or not served, in some cases) or that a specific web page has been accessed. Also known as: beacon, web beacon, action tag, redirect, and so on. Each time a viewer watches an ad associated with a tracking pixel, an HTTP request is made to the tracking pixel URL.


The process of converting one compressed format to another.


In computers, a symbol that has no particular meaning of its own so that its space can be filled by any real character that is necessary.